2.2.x から 3.0.0 へのアップグレード

アップグレードを行う前に、 index.phpファイルを静的ページに置き換えて、オフラインにする必要があります。

Step 1: CodeIgniter ファイルのアップグレード

Replace “system” フォルダのすべてのファイルを新しいものに置き換えてください。 index.php に何か変更を加えていた場合、 新しいファイルに再度適用する必要があります。

Important

You have to delete the old system/ directory first and then put the new one in its place. A simple copy-paste may cause issues.

Note

もし独自に開発したファイルをこのフォルダに入れているなら、 新しいもので置き換える前にコピーを取ってください。

Step 2: クラスファイルの名前を更新

CodeIgniter 3.0 以降、全てのクラスファイル (ライブラリ・ドライバ・コントローラ・モデル)はUcfirst形式、 つまり大文字で始まるようにしなければなりません。

例えばあなたが次のようなライブラリを持っているなら

application/libraries/mylibrary.php

このようにファイル名を変更します。

application/libraries/Mylibrary.php

ドライバライブラリ、エクステンション、それからCodeIgniter付属の コアクラスやライブラリを上書きしている場合も同様です。

application/libraries/MY_email.php application/core/MY_log.php

これらのファイル名は次のように変更します。

application/libraries/MY_Email.php application/core/MY_Log.php

コントローラ:

application/controllers/welcome.php -> application/controllers/Welcome.php

モデル:

application/models/misc_model.php -> application/models/Misc_model.php

このルールはディレクトリ名、設定ファイル、ビュー、ヘルパー、フック等には適用されません。 クラスのみが対象です。

まとめると、次のシンプルなルールになります。 クラス名はUcfirst、それ以外はlowercaseです。

Step 3: config/mimes.php の更新

より多くのMIMEタイプを含むように更新されています。 これを _application/config/mimes.php* にコピーしてください.

Step 4: config/autoload.php から $autoload[‘core’] を削除する

$autoload['core'] は CodeIgniter 1.4.1 で非推奨になっていましたが、ついに削除されました。 もし何か指定されていれば $autoload['libraries'] に移動してください。

Step 5: ログクラスへの拡張・置き換えを移動する

ログクラスは “core” クラスとして扱われるようになったため、 system/core/ ディレクトリに移動されました。 もしこのクラスを拡張・置き換えていた場合、それらのファイルを application/core/ に移動してください:

application/libraries/Log.php -> application/core/Log.php application/libraries/MY_Log.php -> application/core/MY_Log.php

Step 6: セッションライブラリの使い方を更新する

セッションライブラリ は CodeIgniter 3 で刷新され、 様々な新機能が追加されています。 しかし同時に、注意の必要な変更も加えられています。

最も大きな変更は、(暗号化された)クッキーの代わりに 独立したストレージを使うようになったことです。 データの格納先としてのクッキーは完全に廃止されたので、 今後はサーバー上のストレージを使わなければなりません。 デフォルトではファイルシステムが使われます。

新しいセッションクラスはPHPのカスタムセッションハンドラを利用しています。 これによりスーパーグローバルの $_SESSION からも セッションにアクセスできるようになりました。 (これまで同様 “userdata” としても使えます)

構成オプションも追加・削除されています。 詳しくは セッションライブラリのマニュアル を 確認されることをお勧めしますが、 ここでもいくつかのポイントを説明します。

  • $config['sess_driver'] の追加

    デフォルトは ‘files’ ですが、もしあなたが $config['sess_use_database'] を設定していた場合は ‘database’ になります。

  • $config['sess_save_path'] の追加

    ‘database’ ドライバでは $config['sess_table_name'] に フォールバックしますが、それ以外のドライバではマニュアルを参照して 適切な値を設定する必要があります。

  • ci_sessions テーブルの変更 (‘database’ ドライバのみ)

    テーブルの構造が少し変更されています。

    • session_id 列は id に名前が変わりました
    • user_agent 列は削除されました
    • user_data 列は data に名前が変わり、 MySQL では BLOB 型が使われます
    • last_activity 列は timestamp に名前が変わりました

    これに伴いインデックスも更新が必要です。 詳しくは databaseドライバ の説明を参照してください。

    Important

    現在公式にサポートしているのは MySQL と PostgreSQL のみです。 他のデータベースでも動作するかもしれませんが、助言ロックがないために 同時アクセスに対して安全ではありません。 この場合は他のドライバを検討してください。

  • $config['sess_match_useragent'] の廃止

    User-Agent はブラウザから提供される値、つまりクライアントからの 入力値です。これを検証しても意味がないので、 この機能は廃止されました。

  • $config['sess_encrypt_cookie'] の廃止

    前述の通り、今後クッキーにセッションデータが格納されることは ありませんから、このオプションもお役御免になりました。

  • $config['sess_expire_on_close'] の廃止

    このオプションはまだ使えますが、後方互換性のためだけに残されています。 同じ効果は $config['sess_expiration'] を 0 に設定することでも 得ることができます。

  • “flashdata” と “userdata” の衝突に注意

    フラッシュデータは次のリクエストで削除するようにマークされている以外は ただの “userdata” になりました。 つまり、同じ名前の “userdata” と “flashdata” を別々に扱うことはできません。

  • セッションメタデータについて

    これまでは ‘session_id’ 、’ip_address’ 、’user_agent’ 、’last_activity’ といったメタデータに userdata としてアクセスできましたが、 今後はできません。もしこれらのデータを利用しているなら、 セッションメタデータ に関する説明を参照してください。

  • unset_userdata() について

    これまでは 'key' => 'dummy value' といった連想配列で、 一度に複数のキーを削除していました。 この無駄な方法は廃止されたので、 今後はキー だけ を配列の要素として渡さなければなりません。

    // Old
    $this->session->unset_userdata(array('item' => '', 'item2' => ''));
    
    // New
    $this->session->unset_userdata(array('item', 'item2'));

もしセッション拡張を使っていたら、 (おそらく修正が必要ですが) application/libraries/Session/ ディレクトリに移動してください。

Step 7: config/database.php の更新

3.0.0 で Active Record から Query Builder に名前が変更されたので、 config/database.php$active_record 変数も $query_builder に変更する必要があります:

$active_group = 'default';
// $active_record = TRUE;
$query_builder = TRUE;

Step 8: エラーテンプレートの置き換え

CodeIgniter 3.0 ではエラーテンプレートもビューとして扱われ、 _application/views/errors* ディレクトリに移動されました。

また、CLI向けにプレインテキストのエラーテンプレートを サポートするようになりました。これも新たに分ける必要があります。

これまでのテンプレートは _application/errors* から _application/views/errors/html* にそのまま移動して構いませんが、 新しい _application/views/errors/cli* ディレクトリには CodeIgniter のアーカイブからコピーしてください。

Step 9: config/routes.php ファイルの更新

:any を含むルート

歴史的に、 CodeIgniter はこれまでずっとワイルドカード :any を 提供してきました。これは URI セグメント で 任意の文字列にマッチします。

しかし実際の :any.+ という正規表現のエイリアスとして 処理されていました。この正規表現は URI セグメントの 区切り文字である / (スラッシュ) にもマッチするため、 意図しない挙動を生むことになります。

CodeIgniter 3 では :any[^/]+ を表わすようになり、 スラッシュにマッチすることはなくなりました。

一方でこのバグを活用していた開発者もいることでしょう。 もしあなたがその一人で、引き続きスラッシュにマッチさせたいなら、 正規表現 .+ を使ってください:

(.+)    // 全ての文字にマッチする
(:any)  // '/' 以外、全ての文字にマッチする

ディレクトリと ‘default_controller’, ‘404_override’

As you should know, the $route['default_controller'] and $route['404_override'] settings accept not only a controller name, but also controller/method pairs. However, a bug in the routing logic has made it possible for some users to use that as directory/controller instead.

As already said, this behavior was incidental and was never intended, nor documented. If you’ve relied on it, your application will break with CodeIgniter 3.0.

Another notable change in version 3 is that ‘default_controller’ and ‘404_override’ are now applied per directory. To explain what this means, let’s take the following example:

$route['default_controller'] = 'main';

Now, assuming that your website is located at example.com, you already know that if a user visits http://example.com/, the above setting will cause your ‘Main’ controller to be loaded.

However, what happens if you have an application/controllers/admin/ directory and the user visits http://example.com/admin/? In CodeIgniter 3, the router will look for a ‘Main’ controller under the admin/ directory as well. If not found, a Not Found (404) will be triggered.

The same rule applies to the ‘404_override’ setting.

Step 10: 要素が存在しないとき、FALSEではなくNULLを返すようになりました

Many methods and functions now return NULL instead of FALSE when the required items don’t exist:

Step 11: XSS フィルタについて

Many functions in CodeIgniter allow you to use its XSS filtering feature on demand by passing a boolean parameter. The default value of that parameter used to be boolean FALSE, but it is now changed to NULL and it will be dynamically determined by your $config['global_xss_filtering'] value.

If you used to manually pass a boolean value for the $xss_filter parameter or if you’ve always had $config['global_xss_filtering'] set to FALSE, then this change doesn’t concern you.

Otherwise however, please review your usage of the following functions:

Important

Another related change is that the $_GET, $_POST, $_COOKIE and $_SERVER superglobals are no longer automatically overwritten when global XSS filtering is turned on.

Step 12: URI にまつわる潜在的な XSS 問題に注意

The URI Library used to automatically convert a certain set of “programmatic characters” to HTML entities when they are encountered in a URI segment.

This was aimed at providing some automatic XSS protection, in addition to the $config['permitted_uri_chars'] setting, but has proven to be problematic and is now removed in CodeIgniter 3.0.

If your application has relied on this feature, you should update it to filter URI segments through $this->security->xss_clean() whenever you output them.

Step 13: バリデーションルールから ‘xss_clean’ を使う際の注意

A largely unknown rule about XSS cleaning is that it should only be applied to output, as opposed to input data.

We’ve made that mistake ourselves with our automatic and global XSS cleaning feature (see previous step about XSS above), so now in an effort to discourage that practice, we’re also removing ‘xss_clean’ from the officially supported list of form validation rules.

Because the Form Validation library generally validates input data, the ‘xss_clean’ rule simply doesn’t belong in it.

If you really, really need to apply that rule, you should now also load the Security Helper, which contains xss_clean() as a regular function and therefore can be also used as a validation rule.

Step 14: 入力クラス get_post() メソッドの変更点

Previously, the Input Class method get_post() was searching first in POST data, then in GET data. This method has been modified so that it searches in GET then in POST, as its name suggests.

A method has been added, post_get(), which searches in POST then in GET, as get_post() was doing before.

Step 15: ディレクトリヘルパー directory_map() 関数の変更点

In the resulting array, directories now end with a trailing directory separator (i.e. a slash, usually).

Step 16: データベースフォージ drop_table() メソッドの変更点

Up until now, drop_table() added an IF EXISTS clause by default or it didn’t work at all with some drivers. In CodeIgniter 3.0, the IF EXISTS condition is no longer added by default and has an optional second parameter that allows that instead and is set to FALSE by default.

If your application relies on IF EXISTS, you’ll have to change its usage.

// Now produces just DROP TABLE `table_name`
$this->dbforge->drop_table('table_name');

// Produces DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `table_name`
$this->dbforge->drop_table('table_name', TRUE);

Note

The given example uses MySQL-specific syntax, but it should work across all drivers with the exception of ODBC.

Step 17: Email ライブラリで複数のメールを送る際の変更点

The Email Library will automatically clear the set parameters after successfully sending emails. To override this behaviour, pass FALSE as the first parameter in the send() method:

if ($this->email->send(FALSE))
{
        // Parameters won't be cleared
}

Step 18: Form_validation の言語ファイル

Two improvements have been made to the Form Validation Library‘s language files and error messages format:

  • Language Library line keys now must be prefixed with form_validation_ in order to avoid collisions:

    // Old
    $lang['rule'] = ...
    
    // New
    $lang['form_validation_rule'] = ...
  • The error messages format has been changed to use named parameters, to allow more flexibility than what sprintf() offers:

    // Old
    'The %s field does not match the %s field.'
    
    // New
    'The {field} field does not match the {param} field.'

Note

The old formatting still works, but the non-prefixed line keys are DEPRECATED and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+. Therefore you’re encouraged to update its usage sooner rather than later.

Step 19: Make sure your ‘base_url’ config value is not empty

When $config['base_url'] is not set, CodeIgniter tries to automatically detect what your website’s base URL is. This is done purely for convenience when you are starting development of a new application.

Auto-detection is never reliable and also has security implications, which is why you should always have it manually configured!

One of the changes in CodeIgniter 3.0.3 is how this auto-detection works, and more specifically it now falls back to the server’s IP address instead of the hostname requested by the client. Therefore, if you’ve ever relied on auto-detection, it will change how your website works now.

In case you need to allow e.g. multiple domains, or both http:// and https:// prefixes to be dynamically used depending on the request, remember that application/config/config.php is still a PHP script, in which you can create this logic with a few lines of code. For example:

$allowed_domains = array('domain1.tld', 'domain2.tld');
$default_domain  = 'domain1.tld';

if (in_array($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'], $allowed_domains, TRUE))
{
        $domain = $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'];
}
else
{
        $domain = $default_domain;
}

if ( ! empty($_SERVER['HTTPS']))
{
        $config['base_url'] = 'https://'.$domain;
}
else
{
        $config['base_url'] = 'http://'.$domain;
}

Step 20: (以前から)非推奨だった機能の廃止

In addition to the $autoload['core'] configuration setting, there’s a number of other functionalities that have been removed in CodeIgniter 3.0.0:

The SHA1 library

The previously deprecated SHA1 library has been removed, alter your code to use PHP’s native sha1() function to generate a SHA1 hash.

Additionally, the sha1() method in the Encrypt Library has been removed.

The EXT constant

Usage of the EXT constant has been deprecated since dropping support for PHP 4. There’s no longer a need to maintain different filename extensions and in this new CodeIgniter version, the EXT constant has been removed. Use just ‘.php’ instead.

Smiley helper

The Smiley Helper is a legacy feature from EllisLab’s ExpressionEngine product. However, it is too specific for a general purpose framework like CodeIgniter and as such it is now deprecated.

Also, the previously deprecated js_insert_smiley() (since version 1.7.2) is now removed.

The Encrypt library

Following numerous vulnerability reports, the Encrypt Library has been deprecated and a new, Encryption Library is added to take its place.

The new library requires either the MCrypt extension (and /dev/urandom availability) or PHP 5.3.3 and the OpenSSL extension. While this might be rather inconvenient, it is a requirement that allows us to have properly implemented cryptographic functions.

Note

The Encrypt Library is still available for the purpose of keeping backwards compatibility.

Important

You are strongly encouraged to switch to the new Encryption Library as soon as possible!

The Cart library

The Cart Library, similarly to the Smiley Helper is too specific for CodeIgniter. It is now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

The library is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Database drivers ‘mysql’, ‘sqlite’, ‘mssql’, ‘pdo/dblib’

The mysql driver utilizes the old ‘mysql’ PHP extension, known for its aging code base and many low-level problems. The extension is deprecated as of PHP 5.5 and CodeIgniter deprecates it in version 3.0, switching the default configured MySQL driver to mysqli.

Please use either the ‘mysqli’ or ‘pdo/mysql’ drivers for MySQL. The old ‘mysql’ driver will be removed at some point in the future.

The sqlite, mssql and pdo/dblib (also known as pdo/mssql or pdo/sybase) drivers all depend on PHP extensions that for different reasons no longer exist since PHP 5.3.

Therefore we are now deprecating these drivers as we will have to remove them in one of the next CodeIgniter versions. You should use the more advanced, sqlite3, sqlsrv or pdo/sqlsrv drivers respectively.

Note

These drivers are still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to switch to other ones sooner rather than later.

Security helper do_hash()

Security Helper function do_hash() is now just an alias for PHP’s native hash() function. It is deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This function is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

The $config[‘global_xss_filtering’] setting

As already explained above, XSS filtering should not be done on input data, but on output instead. Therefore, the $config['global_xss_filtering'], which automatically filters input data, is considered a bad practice and is now deprecated.

Instead, you should manually escape any user-provided data via the xss_clean() function when you need to output it, or use a library like HTML Purifier that does that for you.

Note

The setting is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

File helper read_file()

File Helper function read_file() is now just an alias for PHP’s native file_get_contents() function. It is deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This function is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

String helper repeater()

String Helper function repeater() is now just an alias for PHP’s native str_repeat() function. It is deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This function is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

String helper trim_slashes()

String Helper function trim_slashes() is now just an alias for PHP’s native trim() function (with a slash passed as its second argument). It is deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This function is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Form helper form_prep()

Form Helper function form_prep() is now just an alias for common function html_escape(). It is deprecated and will be removed in the future.

Please use html_escape() instead.

Note

This function is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Email helper functions

Email Helper only has two functions

Both of them are now aliases for PHP’s native filter_var() and mail() functions, respectively. Therefore the Email Helper altogether is being deprecated and is scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

These functions are still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove their usage sooner rather than later.

Date helper standard_date()

Date Helper function standard_date() is being deprecated due to the availability of native PHP constants, which when combined with date() provide the same functionality. Furthermore, they have the exact same names as the ones supported by standard_date(). Here are examples of how to replace its usage:

// Old way
standard_date(); // defaults to standard_date('DATE_RFC822', now());

// Replacement
date(DATE_RFC822, now());

// Old way
standard_date('DATE_ATOM', $time);

// Replacement
date(DATE_ATOM, $time);

Note

This function is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later as it is scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

HTML helpers nbs(), br()

HTML Helper functions nbs() and br() are just aliases for the native str_repeat() function used with &nbsp; and <br > respectively.

Because there’s no point in just aliasing native PHP functions, they are now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

These functions are still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove their usage sooner rather than later.

Pagination library ‘anchor_class’ setting

The Pagination Library now supports adding pretty much any HTML attribute to your anchors via the ‘attributes’ configuration setting. This includes passing the ‘class’ attribute and using the separate ‘anchor_class’ setting no longer makes sense. As a result of that, the ‘anchor_class’ setting is now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This setting is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

String helper random_string() types ‘unique’ and ‘encrypt’

When using the String Helper function random_string(), you should no longer pass the unique and encrypt randomization types. They are only aliases for md5 and sha1 respectively and are now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

These options are still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove their usage sooner rather than later.

URL helper url_title() separators ‘dash’ and ‘underscore’

When using the URL Helper function url_title(), you should no longer pass dash or underscore as the word separator. This function will now accept any character and you should just pass the chosen character directly, so you should write ‘-‘ instead of ‘dash’ and ‘_’ instead of ‘underscore’.

dash and underscore now act as aliases and are deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

These options are still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove their usage sooner rather than later.

Session Library method all_userdata()

As seen in the Change Log, Session Library method userdata() now allows you to fetch all userdata by simply omitting its parameter:

$this->session->userdata();

This makes the all_userdata() method redudant and therefore it is now just an alias for userdata() with the above shown usage and is being deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This method is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Database Forge method add_column() with an AFTER clause

If you have used the third parameter for Database Forge method add_column() to add a field for an AFTER clause, then you should change its usage.

That third parameter has been deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

You should now put AFTER clause field names in the field definition array instead:

// Old usage:
$field = array(
        'new_field' => array('type' => 'TEXT')
);

$this->dbforge->add_column('table_name', $field, 'another_field');

// New usage:
$field = array(
        'new_field' => array('type' => 'TEXT', 'after' => 'another_field')
);

$this->dbforge->add_column('table_name', $field);

Note

The parameter is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Note

This is for MySQL and CUBRID databases only! Other drivers don’t support this clause and will silently ignore it.

URI Routing methods fetch_directory(), fetch_class(), fetch_method()

With properties CI_Router::$directory, CI_Router::$class and CI_Router::$method being public and their respective fetch_*() no longer doing anything else to just return the properties - it doesn’t make sense to keep them.

Those are all internal, undocumented methods, but we’ve opted to deprecate them for now in order to maintain backwards-compatibility just in case. If some of you have utilized them, then you can now just access the properties instead:

$this->router->directory;
$this->router->class;
$this->router->method;

Note

Those methods are still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove their usage sooner rather than later.

Input library method is_cli_request()

Calls to the CI_Input::is_cli_request() method are necessary at many places in the CodeIgniter internals and this is often before the Input Library is loaded. Because of that, it is being replaced by a common function named is_cli() and this method is now just an alias.

The new function is both available at all times for you to use and shorter to type.

// Old
$this->input->is_cli_request();

// New
is_cli();

CI_Input::is_cli_request() is now now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This method is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Config library method system_url()

Usage of CI_Config::system_url() encourages insecure coding practices. Namely, your CodeIgniter system/ directory shouldn’t be publicly accessible from a security point of view.

Because of this, this method is now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This method is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

The Javascript library

The Javascript Library has always had an ‘experimental’ status and was never really useful, nor a proper solution.

It is now deprecated and scheduled for removal in CodeIgniter 3.1+.

Note

This library is still available, but you’re strongly encouraged to remove its usage sooner rather than later.

Step 21: テキストヘルパー highlight_phrase() の注意点

The default HTML tag used by Text Helper function highlight_phrase() has been changed from <strong> to the new HTML5 tag <mark>.

Unless you’ve used your own highlighting tags, this might cause trouble for your visitors who use older web browsers such as Internet Explorer 8. We therefore suggest that you add the following code to your CSS files in order to avoid backwards compatibility with old browsers:

mark {
        background: #ff0;
        color: #000;
};